Some have suggested that Zhuangzi was anti-reason. This, we believe, is to completely distort his position. Most fundamentally, it misses that Zhuangzi and Daoism generally negate nothing of the human experience. Ultimately, all things are affirmable by virtue of their having arisen at all. This means that even the misuse of reason, or any other human faculty, is, within the broadest possible context, also affirmable. By “affirmable” we do not mean “good” as opposed to “evil”; we mean that it is possible to imagine apparent reality as beyond good and evil. We will have occasion to address this again in more detail as it pertains to the inherent value of all things. Our point here is that Daoism embraces all things generally and all expressions within humanity specifically. The faculty of a reasoning mind has its problems, but this does not mean it should be eliminated. The same can be said for every other human faculty, including the self which is so often disparaged and vilified.

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